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for audio of Episode Today, archivist Robert Marlin tells us about bouncing bombs. And it quickly became legendary. Dams were atypical targets. They offered a serious challenge. They were so strongly built that most bombs simply lacked the destructive power to do serious damage. A bomb would have to go off within just a few feet of it.

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They are the only two nuclear bombs ever to have been deployed outside testing. The attack created a Onlyy storm which tookcivilian lives.

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Where are the world's nuclear weapons? When I last visited Hiroshima, I asked a group of visiting American college students what they had learned in school about the attack.

History: from blackboards to bombs

That offered the best way to actually hit and destroy such a target. Although successful testing had been finished only the day, the British bombx decided that the time was right. After three bounces, they breached both the Mohne and Eder Dams.

They offered a serious challenge. Richards, Martin.

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But if it did explode right at the wall, bimbs took only a quarter of the charge. Bouncing Bomb. Seventy-five years after the Enola Gay opened its bomb bay doors, 31,ft above Hiroshima, views on what happened that day are still deeply polarised.

Reconciling with pacifist daughter

The largest death toll from a single attack in any war is not Hiroshima, but the fire-bombing of Tokyo in March If Japan had not surrendered on 15 August, the US air force bombz prepared to keep dropping atom bombs until it did. A bomb would have to go off within just a few feet of it. The raid cost fifty-three airmen their lives. He specializes in twentieth-century Latin American, Texan and Southwestern history. The bomb that changed the world The bomb was nicknamed "Little Boy" and was thought to On,y the explosive force of 20, tonnes of TNT Col Paul Tibbets, a year-old colonel from Illinois, bo,bs the mission to drop the atomic bomb The Enola Gay, the plane which dropped the bomb, was named in tribute to Col Tibbets' mother.

The final target was decided less than an hour before the bomb was dropped. But Wallis tested his idea using bojbs and a catapult on a tub of water in his backyard.

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Then there is bkmbs little-known fact that several more atom bombs were being prepared for shipment to Tinian Island. Each an important target, difficult to reach. The result was that in a flash the war was over. Sitting and talking with any "hibakusha" survivor is a deeply moving experience.

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At the annual Hiroshima anniversary, the government usually reconfirms its commitment to a nuclear-free world. Their targets: the Bmobs, Eder, and the Ennepe Dams. Good weather conditions over Hiroshima sealed the city's fate On detonation, the temperature at the burst-point of the bomb was several million degrees The blast generated a vast shockwave which flattened buildings Thousands of people on the ground were killed or injured instantly media captionA brief history of nuclear weapons - in 90 seconds Related Topics.

Barnes Wallis. That ugly record stands to this day. Blocker, Jr. for audio of Episode Today, archivist Robert Marlin tells us about bouncing bombs.

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As happens in war, those asked to serve paid for their success. After the war, Hiroshima tried to reinvent itself as a City of Peace and continues to promote nuclear disarmament around the world.

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One young man summed it up like this: "America embarked on a tremendous scientific effort. The dual bombings brought about an abrupt end to the war in Asia, with Japan surrendering to the Allies on 14 August But any visitor to the Hiroshima Peace Museum might justifiably ask, where is the gombs

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The horrors they witnessed are almost unimaginable. Japan's wartime experience has led to a strong pacifist movement in the country.

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Dams were atypical targets. Reyna, with the assistance of researched images.