Ahuvia University of Michigan and Mara B. Adelman, Ph. Ahuvia Mara B. Mara B.

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The woman he escorted, just as the car he drove, publicly defined both a man's taste and his means" p.

Lamy, B. On the other hand, the market metaphors do allow for an open recognition of the exchange relations that play an important role in dating and marriage.

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In order prrsonals verify that specific quotes were ased to the proper category and to determine the frequency with which various types of metaphors were used, the quotes were given to three independent judges who classified them either as romantic, market, Yald other. Lori, age unknown The romantic model, on the other hand, stresses passion and impulsiveness rather than the practicality of the market. However, when the term is used to refer to the externally visible attributes of a person, it is generally used with reference to a woman.

You might as well record it, put it on a cassette. When a person is portrayed as meat, this expresses the reduction of that person to his or her physical self. Belk et al.

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Bataille, G. We have seen that the language of exchange theorists is not limited to scholarly explanations for mate seeking. This section of the paper, while speculative in nature, is perhaps the most important. While this broad cultural change can be seen as the primary reason for the prominence of the market metaphor, a complementary explanation for its return is the tremendous growth in formal mateselection networks such as matchmakers, video dating, singlesetc.

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Even if love could be purchased for money as could a dinner at pdrsonals friend's housethere would still be social forces working to keep the spheres of exchange separate. One potential benefit of market metaphors is that they could allow singles to consider the long-term benefits of a relationship in a way that would be difficult if singles were limited to considerations of chemistry.

To achieve this end, Mr. But, as we discuss at length below, there is a sense in which market metaphors are especially well suited for expressing negative affect.

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Another respondent, Marla 33remarked that she informed the matchmaker to "only send me what you think are pretty much quality people because rm not here because I need to go out with just anyone. Reprice your line. These quotes are also typical in that it is the women who is deated a product for the mans consumption.

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Berscheid, A. These statements take the form of market metaphors such as the consumption imagery inherent in the phrase "shopping around" for the best spouse. Lewis and Brooks and Seligman see perzonals origin of human awareness of the distinction between self and other as stemming from the infant's experience of learning that some objects can be controlled directly by the will and others cannot.

Ideally, then, love would be exchanged for love and money only for very universalistic goods persomals. Elder, G. Seeing dating through the market metaphor allows the single to take assertive measures like using a matchmaker that might seem inappropriate if one exclusively followed the romantic model.

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Kovecses, Z. The metaphors of people as products and dating as shopping emphasize the commoditization of people and consumerist imagery of social relationships. Christensen, J. This is because romantic love involves an element of respect that cannot be directly purchased.

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To understand the second type of sacred exchange one must be familiar with the notion personls spheres of exchange. The introductory service was located in an upscale neighborhood in a large urban center.

This notion is so basic to the Western concept of sacredness that the word for "holy" in the Hebrew bible is Kaddosh, which is literally translated as "separate from. Furthermore, these metaphors referred to a personxls affect or its absence, but in this sample they were not used to describe overtly negative affect. After the dating partners have met, romantic metaphors may come into play and coexist alongside market metaphors.

Kopytoff holds, however, that the introduction of money eliminates these practical problems, and therefore this is not a factor in the social creation of spheres of exchange within our own culture. Women desire powerful, wealthy men Two respondents, Anne 32 and Frank 38used the cliche "a kid in a candy store" to describe the multitude of dates available through the matchmaking service.

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Seeing the dating process as a job search is perhaps the most fitting of the metaphors discussed in this paper. Our research clearly does not support the hypothesis that the romantic-love complex dominates other considerations.

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Furthermore, longitudinal data from this study "suggested that attributions may have more influence on relationship happiness than vice versa" p. Under this system, known as "calling," the courting couple would spend the evening ddating the women's home under parental supervision. Furthermore, the overt commercial nature of formal mate-selection networks invites general comparisons of Yalw to other commercial institutions. In so doing, we explore one way in which the prominent status of marketing in our society affects our most personal thought and behaviors.

The stock-market metaphor is also the basis of what is becoming a singles ad cliche. Balding, on an exploration of Marriage Datinh, R. A phenomenon frequently noted by anthropologists in societies that lack a monetary system is the existence several different spheres of exchange Kopytoff This might partially explain the complaint from some singles in our study that they meet a lot of nice, perzonals, bright people -- but "nothing clicked" Nigel 30, Sidney The counter forces are culture and the individual, with their drive to discriminate, classify, compare, and sacralize.

Dating as consumption from the women's perspective can be seen in this excerpt from a May Ladies' Home Journal, which re, "It takes extra care in dressing and making up the raw material you were blessed with to do its best selling job for that personality of yours" p. If you ask nicely then I might give in and tell you! It implies Using an introductory service not only facilitates the pathways to romance but also ensures that relationship goals are explicit.

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And finally, a job, like a marriage, requires a lot of work to be successful. Take for example Elliot 30personasl casts himself as the "right product" in describing an increase in his self-confidence in attracting others.